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JLPT N5 – Grammar list

1 ちゃいけない ča ikenai nesmí(te) (podobně jako “じゃいけない”)
2 ましょうか mašóka Mám?, Mohu?
3 どうして dóšite jak; jakým způsobem; jakými prostředky
4 けど kedo ale; avšak, nicméně
5 に/へ ni/e na (místo)
6 たい tai chtít
7 がいます / がいる ga imasu / ga iru je (pro živé tělo)
8 のです no desu the expectation is that …; the reason is that …; the fact is that …; the explanation is that …; it is that …
9 すぎる sugiru to pass through; to pass by; to go beyond
10 ませんか masen ka won’t (hasn’t, isn’t, doesn’t, etc.)
11 なぁ naa hey; say; look
12 お/ご o/go
13 か ka used as a question mark
14 〇〇方が〇〇 -hou ga – A is more B (than something else)
15 で de in, with
16 なる naru to become; to get; to grow; to be; to reach; to attain
17 しかし shikashi however; but
18 ている te iru is .. -ing
19 〇〇は〇〇より〇〇です -wa -yori -desu .. compared to .. is more ..
20 はどうですか wa dou desu ka what about .. ?
21 どうやって douyatte how; in what way; by what means
22 から kara from (e.g. time, place, numerical quantity); since
23 つもり tsumori intention; plan
24 にする ni suru to make something as ..
25 にいく ni iku to go for +verb-ing, to go + verb-ing
26 でしょう deshou it seems; I think; I guess; I wonder
27 まだ mada still; as yet; hitherto; only
28 なくては nakute wa unless; without
29 に ni towards (someone), to (someone)
30 てもいいです temo ii desu it is ok to do ..
31 ほうがいい hou ga ii had better
32 のがじょうず no ga jouzu being good at ..
33 は wa topic marker particle
34 〇〇より〇〇方がマシ -yori -hou ga mashi I would rather; I would as lief do; strong preference
35 てから te kara after .. is done
36 じゃない janai / dewa nai is not; am not; are not
37 けれども keredo mo however; although
38 を wo indicates direct object of action
39 よ yo put an emphasis on the confidence ones have into what he or she is saying
40 だろう darou seems; I think; I guess; I wonder; I hope
41 なくてはならない nakute wa naranai cannot do without something; indispensable; absolutely necessary
42 んです ndesu the expectation is that …; the reason is that …; the fact is that …; the explanation is that …; it is that …
43 や ya or
44 がほしい ga hoshii I want ..
45 もう mou now; soon; shortly; before long; presently
46 〇〇のなかで〇〇がいちばん -no naka de -ga ichiban among .., .. is the best
47 とても totemo very; awfully; exceedingly
48 どんな donna what; what kind of
49 〇〇たり〇〇たり tari-tari -ing and -ing (e.g. “coming and going”)
50 いちばん ichiban number one; first; first place

51 いつも itsumo always; usually; every time
52 なくてもいい naku temo ii need not; (not) have to
53 のが好き no ga suki like; love; contraction of “のことが好き”
54 じゃいけない ja ikenai mustn’t ..
55 でも demo but; however; though; nevertheless; still; yet; even so; also; as well
56 てはいけない te wa ikenai must not ..
57 まだ〇〇ていません mada -te imasen still not .. ?
58 ましょう mashou let’s .. !
59 の no indicates possessive
60 も mo too; also; in addition; as well; (not) either (in a negative sentence)
61 〇〇か〇〇か -ka -ka either .. either ..
62 まで made until (a time); till; to; up to
63 ないで naide without doing …
64 ね ne isn’t it ?
65 があります ga arimasu I have .., there is.. (for a non-living body)
66 前に mae ni
67 ので node that being the case; because of …; the reason is …; given that …
68 ください o kudasai please (give me)
69 てある te aru has been ..
70 かた kata a person
71 ないといけない naito ikenai have to (verb); must (verb)
72 のがへた no ga heta being bad at ..
73 だけ dake only; just; merely; simply; no more than; nothing but; alone
74 とき toki when
75 が ga indicates sentence subject (occasionally object)
76 いっしょに issho ni together (with); at the same time; in a lump
77 なくてはいけない nakute wa ikenai cannot do without something; indispensable; absolutely necessary
78 〇〇方がいい -hou ga ii verb + hou ga ii (ones would better “do” something), with a noun + you ga ii (“something” is better)
79 だ / です da / desu be; is
80 でも demo ale, nicméně, ačkoli, avšak, přesto, rovněž, i tak, také, jakož i
81 ないでください naide kudasai nedělejte to, prosím… / prosím, ne …
82 ことがある ta koto ga aru (for something) to have occurred; to have done (something)

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